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Jerry Barker Consultants has considerable expertise in using and developing
and Electroless deposition systems. Our team has more than 15 years hands-on
industry experience working in these important technological areas.
Use our team to develop novel solutions for your deposition requirements.
Electrodeposition may be used for
deposition of metal, alloy, semiconductor or advanced materials. Electroless
deposition systems are almost exclusively used for metallic
deposition, but our organization also has considerable experience in the emerging area of
Electroless deposition (Chemical Bath Deposition)
of compound semiconductors.
Electrodeposition (plating) is used extensively in the metallic
coating, decorative finishing, corrosion protection and engineering industries. Jerry
Barker Consultants can offer a range of solutions
to meet your electrodeposition requirements. We specialize
in the design, development and operation of deposition systems such
as those used to deposit metallic coatings, alloys and semiconductors as
well as electroactive materials for battery
applications. Yet another growth area for electrodeposition is in
development of metallic contacts for semiconductors. Jerry Barker
Consultants has extensive knowledge of the chemistry of electrodeposition
baths, plating hardware and software control. If required we also
have the skills necessary to theoretically model your deposition
Electrodeposition of Semiconductors.
methods normally used to deposit semiconductors (e.g. CVD, MO-CVD,
MBE) are relatively complex, requiring expensive equipment
and often using toxic chemical
intermediates. In contrast the electrodeposition method offers
a novel technique utilizing low cost capital equipment and readily
available and non-toxic precursors. In addition, electrodeposition
allows excellent control of the deposition process, whereby properties
such as the compound stoichiometry, surface morphology and crystallinity
may be readily varied. In recent years, improved control methods
have allowed successful electrodeposition of compound semiconductor
materials such as CdTe, CdSe, CdS and ZnTe.
Jerry Barker Consultants has many years experience working in this industry. As an
example of our expertise in this area, Dr. Barker is the named co-inventor
on one of the most important and ground-breaking patents describing
electrodeposition of ultra high purity II-IV compound semiconductors. He has also
published and presented extensively on this subject. This technology
has developed into a new and exciting application of electrodeposition.
BP Solar is currently using this process in its thin film
photovoltaic production facility in Fairfield, California.
Electrodeposition of Metals on Semiconductors.
This really is a growth area. Electrodeposition of metallic contacts
to n- and p-type semiconductors offers a relatively fast and cost
effective alternative to the more traditional high vacuum techniques
normally encountered (e.g. evaporation, sputtering etc). Novel plating solutions,
hardware and deposition conditions have been devised to meet
these special requirements. However, successful deposition of nickel, copper,
gold as well as more exotic metals and alloys have recently been demonstrated
at a commercial scale. Jerry Barker Consultants has particular experience in the
challenging environment of electrodeposition of metallic contacts
to thin film semiconductors. These are now used extensively in the
Electroless Deposition Background.
Electroless deposition systems can be very elegant. In the reduction
process, the electrons are supplied by a reducing agent present
in the plating solution. Dependent on the nature of the metal
to be deposited the reducing agent employed may vary. Typical reducing
agents include sodium hypophosphite, sodium borohydride, hydrazine
and dimethylamine borane (DMAB). Materials that may be deposited
by an electroless method include nickel, copper and gold as well
as binary and ternary alloys.
Recent advances have seen the emergence of so-called
methods for deposition of compound semiconductors, such as CdS and
CdTe. By strict definition these methods are nor truly electroless
but are really controlled precipitation techniques, and are more
correctly described as 'Chemical Bath Deposition' methods.
Jerry Barker Consultants
has considerable experience and expertise in both electroless and
chemical bath deposition methods. This specialized knowledge extends
to deposition formulations and control hardware necessary to deposit
a range of materials, including semiconductors.
Electroless Deposition of Metals on Semiconductors.
This is an important and emerging technology. Controlled electroless
deposition of metals onto elemental or compound semiconductors is
important in all areas of semiconductor technology including wafer
interconnection and photovoltaics. Nickel and copper are particularly
important, although more exotic metals and alloys may also be considered.
Jerry Barker Consultants can assist your organization in developing processes and
hardware to harness this important and cost effective technology.
Electroless Deposition of Compound Semiconductors
- Chemical Bath Deposition.
The Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) method is gaining general
acceptance as a very cost effective method for the controlled
deposition of semiconductors. The CBD method is not a true
electroless process, but rather depends on the controlled precipitation
of reactants. Compound semiconductors that may be deposited
successfully by the CBD approach include the II-IV materials such
as CdS, ZnTe and ZnS. These materials are useful, for
example, as window layers in thin film photovoltaic devices and
as optical detectors. Typically, uniform layers of < 2000 ┼ may
be readily deposited on various substrates such as ITO and SnO2
coated glass. Success has also be made with direct electroless coating
of these materials on top of other compound semiconductors to form
p-n junction devices. Dr Barker has worked extensively on
developing CBD processes and systems, including formulations and
deposition methods aimed at depositing novel semiconductor layers.
Some of these systems are currently in commercial production. Let Jerry
Barker Consultants use this expertise to assist your organization in exploiting
this most useful and under estimated deposition method.
and electroless deposition systems form an important technological area.
A number of key industries routinely use these technologies
- including automotive, semiconductor, magnetic media, corrosion protection
and photovoltaics. In recent years significant advances in
the fundamental understanding of these deposition processes have
led to the underlying techniques being used in high technology applications
such as in copper interconnection technology. Other significant
accomplishments have been reported in the application of these
deposition methods for high-purity semiconductor preparation. These
thin film semiconductors find use in photovoltaic and infra-red
detector applications and example materials include CdTe, CdSe and