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Some Useful Links

We hope you find the information on this website useful. Please feel free to use the links below to find more information about some of our activities.

Sodium-Ion Batteries

Hybrid-Ion Batteries

Carbothermal Reduction

LiMSO4F Active Materials

Li2MP2O7 Active Materials

Li3M2(PO4)3 Active Materials

Silicophosphate Active Materials

LiMPO4F Active Materials

LiMPO4.OH Active Materials

LiFe(M)PO4 Active Materials

Cathode Active Blends

Novel Graphite Anode Materials (3R Phase)

Li2MPO4F Active Materials

Na2MPO4F Active Materials

Na3M2(PO4)2F3 Active Materials

Sulfate Active Materials

Li2MTiO4 Active Materials

LiMTiO4 Active Materials

LixMoO2 Active Materials

Surface-Stabilized LiMn2O4

Li2CuO2 Active Material

Active Material Blends

Semiconductor Electrodeposition

Below is a short summary of active materials that were either invented or co-invented by Jerry Barker:

LiFe1-xMxPO4 Substituted Olivines (M = Mg, Ca, Zn etc.) US6884544

Li3M2(PO4)3 Nasicons (M = Fe, V, Mn etc.) US5871866

LiMPO4F Fluorophosphates (M = Fe, V, Mn etc.) US 6387568

LiMPO4.OH Hydroxy-phosphates (M = Fe, V, Mn etc.) US6777132

Li2MP2O7 Dilithium diphosphates (M = Fe, Mn, Co, Ni etc.) US7008566

Li3M(SO4)3 Lithium sulfates (M = Fe, V, Mn etc.) US5908716

LiMSO4F Lithium Fluorosulfates (M = Fe, Mn, Co, Ni etc.) US2005/0163699

NaMSO4F Sodium Fluorosulfates (M = Fe, Mn, Co, Ni etc.) US2005/0163699

Li2MPO4F Lithium Fluorophosphates (M = Fe, Mn, Co, Ni etc.) US6890686

Na2MPO4F Sodium Fluorophosphates (M = Fe, Mn, Co, Ni etc.) US6890686

Li4M2(SiO4)(PO4)2 Silicophosphates (M = Fe, V, Mn etc.) US6136472

Li3M1.5Al0.5(PO4)3 Substituted Nasicons (M = Fe, V, Mn etc.) US5871866

β-LiVOPO4 Vanadyl Phosphate US6645452 (method-of-making)

NaMPO4F Sodium Fluorophosphates (M = Fe, V, Mn etc.) US6872492

Na3M2(PO4)2F3 Sodium Fluorophosphates (M = Fe, V, Mn etc.) US6872492

LiMTiO4, LiMZrO4 Titanates, Zirconates (M = Fe, V, Mn etc.) US6720112

Li2MTiO4, Li2MZrO4 Titanates, Zirconates (M = Fe, Mn, Co, Ni etc.) US6103419

Li2CuO2 Lithium Copper Oxide US5670277

LixMoO2 Lithium Molybdenum Oxides US6908710

LiV2O5 Lithium Vanadium Oxide

Novel Phase A US Pending

Novel Phase B US Pending

Novel Phase C US Pending








Welcome to our homepage - we hope you find the information useful.  Please use the navigation bar above to access the rest of the site.

In addition, please check out Jerry Barker's blog site here:

Barker's Battery Blog

Jerry Barker Consultants is a privately owned consulting business based in the UK specializing in electrochemical science and technology. 

Novel Battery Materials:

To the left (and also on the Phosphate and Materials pages on this website) you will find a short summary of active materials that were either invented or co-invented by Jerry Barker.


Jerry Barker has over 25 years of experience in electrochemistry, energy storage, batteries, solid-state chemistry,  semiconductor electrodeposition, thin-film photovoltaics, electrochromics, instrument control software, intellectual property, conducting polymers, project management and much more.....

Lithium Battery Expertise:

Jerry Barker is an acknowledged world expert on lithium metal and lithium-ion battery technologies.

Technical Publications:

Jerry Barker has published over 80 peer-reviewed technical papers

Intellectual Property:

Jerry Barker is the named inventor on more than 85 issued US patents and on over 40 pending US patent applications. In addition, Jerry is the named inventor on numerous international patents and patent applications.

Peer Review:

Jerry Barker is a current peer reviewer for 15 leading international journals.

Thin-film Photovoltaics (PV):

Jerry Barker has extensive knowledge and experience in the large area electodeposition of compound semiconductors for use in Photovoltaic (PV) and other applications.

Extensive Client List:

Jerry Barker has assisted numerous R&D organizations ranging in size from global multinationals to small start-ups. 

Research Facilities:

Jerry Barker has run research and development labs in Europe and in the US. Our present facility in England includes a state-of-the-art electrochemical testing facility.

Lithium Metal Phosphates:

Jerry Barker led the first research group to establish lithium metal phosphates as viable electroactive materials for lithium-ion applications.

Fluorophosphate Active Materials:

Jerry Barker invented the world's first fluorophosphate based lithium-ion battery. This battery is currently entering commercial production. We believe that LiVPO4F may rival lithium cobalt oxide as the industry's best cathode material choice.

Phosphate Electroactive Materials:

Jerry Barker invented and developed numerous phosphate electroactive materials for battery applications -  e.g. M-substituted LiFe(M)PO4, Li3M2(PO4)3, LiMPO4F, NaMPO4F, Li2MPO4F, Na3V2(PO4)2F3, LiVP2O7, LiVOPO4 etc.

Phosphate Lithium-ion Batteries:

Jerry Barker played a pivotal role in the development  of the world's first commercially available phosphate based lithium-ion battery. Currently this chemistry is the industry's only inherently safe lithium-ion system and is finding wide use in large format applications such as EV/HEV/PHEV.

Hybrid-ion Batteries:

Jerry Barker announced a recent and major breakthrough in lithium-ion battery research whereby a sodium insertion material is used in conjunction with a graphite anode. This may lead to an entirely new range of energy storage devices.

Carbothermal Reduction:

Jerry Barker invented and established the Carbothermal Reduction (CTR) approach for the large scale and cost-effective synthesis of electroactive materials for battery applications. The proprietary CTR method is now used to make active materials at the metric tonne per day scale.

Electrochemical Voltage Spectroscopy:

 Jerry Barker developed the Electrochemical Voltage Spectroscopy (EVS) method into an industry standard analysis tool for studying ion insertion reactions.

Sodium-ion Batteries:

Jerry Barker invented the world's first sodium-ion battery based on polyanion active materials.

Nasicon-based Lithium-ion Batteries:

Jerry Barker demonstrated the world's first commercially available lithium-ion battery based on a Nasicon (Li3V2(PO4)3) cathode active material

Manganese Oxide Lithium-ion Batteries:

 Jerry Barker invented and developed a commercially successful lithium-ion battery based on a surface-modified lithium manganese oxide (spinel) active material.

Symmetrical Lithium-ion Batteries:

  Established the world's first symmetrical lithium-ion battery - a novel concept where the same active material acts as both positive and negative electrodes. This approach is expected to have major positive impact on the safety and cost of these novel battery systems.

Semiconductor Electrodeposition:

 Jerry Barker invented and patented processes for the large scale electrodeposition of compound semiconductors (with BP Solar).

Next Generation Photovoltaic Devices:

 Jerry Barker invented processes to allow the large scale manufacture of thin film II-VI photovoltaic devices with world record conversion efficiencies.

Diphosphate Lithium-ion Batteries:

 Jerry Barker demonstrated the world's first diphosphate-based lithium-ion battery.

Lithium Vanadium Oxide Lithium-ion Batteries:

Demonstrated the world's first lithium-ion battery based on a low cost, lithiated vanadium oxide cathode chemistry.

Nobel Prize Winners:

Jerry Barker has collaborated and published on electronically conducting polymers with the Nobel Prize winners, Prof. Alan Heeger and Prof. Hideo Shirakawa.


Latest News

November 2012 - Faradion Limited

Jerry Barker is now working full-time at Faradion Limited - a UK-based start-up  company  engaged in the research and development of next generation (non-lithium) energy storage devices.

Important and exciting news about the company should follow shortly...

Jerry can be contacted at the company using the following email address:



November 2012 - Tavorite-type fluorophosphates

Research and interest on Tavorite-type vanadium fluorophosphates continues to gain pace. These triclinic structured materials, which were first described by Jerry Barker and co-workers, are extremely promising electrode materials for both Li-ion and Na-ion batteries.

Continuing this general theme, a recent paper by Park et al (Scientific Reports 2, October 2012) describes a new layer structure lithium/sodium vanadium fluorophosphate, Li1.1Na0.4VPO4.8F0.7.


November 2011 - Important News: Faradion Limited

Jerry Barker has recently been appointed CTO of Faradion Limited. This hi-tech start-up company located in the UK is engaged in the development of next generation energy storage devices.

More information about Faradion may be found  at the company website:

Faradion Limited Website


November 2011 - International Battery Materials Association (IBA)

Jerry Barker has been selected to receive the IBA Technology Award of 2012. The prestigious award is granted based on "contributions made to identifying new secondary battery cathode materials and related materials research field, which have been recognized internationally."


November 2011 - New Issued US Patent

An important US patent has recently issued  (Inventors: Jerry Barker and Yazid Saidi) covering new synthesis routes to making valuable phosphate-based electrode active materials for lithium-ion batteries. The full details may be found here:

US#8057769: Method for making phosphate-based electrode active materials.


February 2011 - Patent Infringement; Carbothermal Reduction Patent

Valence Technology Inc. has won its Canadian patent infringement lawsuit (Tuesday, February 17, 2011) regarding its proprietary carbothermal reduction technology (CTR).  The lawsuit was filed against Phostech Lithium Inc. and the judgment entitles Valence to an injunction, an election of either an accounting of profits or damages, reasonable compensation and costs. The Valence press release for this announcement may be found here:

Valence Technology Victorious in Canadian Patent Infringement Lawsuit

The CTR invention was invented and developed by Jerry Barker and co-workers as the most economical process for the manufacturing of lithium metal phosphates for battery applications. Valence has been using this technology for several years to make its lithium iron magnesium phosphate material.


September 2010 - Lithium Metal Diphosphates

A recent article in the J. American Chemical Society entitled New Lithium Iron Pyrophosphate as 3.5 V Class Cathode for Lithium Ion Battery has described the promising electrochemical properties of the lithium insertion material, Li2FeP2O7. 

The Li2FeP2O7 material represents one example of a class of lithium metal diphosphates materials, Li2MP2O7 (where M = +2 oxidation state transition metal). The use of these materials in battery applications is covered in the following issued US Patent (Inventors: Barker and Saidi, filed April 2003):

US#7008566: Oligo Phosphate-based Electrode Active Materials.


August 2010 - Issued US Patents

Two important US patents  (Inventors: Jerry Barker and co-workers) covering various aspects of lithium-ion battery technology have recently been issued. The full details may be found here:

US#7767322: Alkali/transition metal phosphates and related electrode active materials.

US#7771628: Electrodes comprising mixed active particles.


July 2010 - Fluorosulfate Active Materials

Alkali metal fluorosulfate materials (AMSO4F, A  = Li or Na) are currently receiving significant attention as potentially valuable new cathode active materials for advanced battery applications. The use of these materials in energy storage applications is covered in the following US Patent application (US 2005/0163699- Inventors: Jerry Barker and co-workers):

Fluorosulfate based electrode active materials and methods of making the same.

It should also be noted that earlier US patent applications by the same inventors also cover these materials in various energy storage applications.


July 2010 - Pellion Technologies Inc.

Pellion Technologies Inc., an MIT spin-out company researching new magnesium-based energy storage systems has launched its website:

Pellion Technologies Inc.


July 2010 - Sodium Ion Battery Patent

An important and  recently issued US patent entitled Sodium Ion Batteries (US#7759008-  Inventors: Jerry Barker and co-workers) describes the use of polyanion cathode materials in these advanced battery applications. Sodium ion batteries may out-perform their lithium counterparts in terms of performance,  cost and safety.


May 2010 - ARPA-E Program

Last month the U.S. Department of Energy announced it is awarding $106 million in federal funding through the Advanced Research Projects Agency – Energy (ARPA-E). Within the Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage in Transportation (BEEST) sector there were some important awards for Pellion Technologies Inc. and ReVolt Technology LLP.

More information on the objectives of BEEST may be found here:

The ARPA-E BEEST Program


May 2010 - New LiVPO4F Results

An important new paper by M.V.Reddy and co-workers confirms the excellent long term lithium cycling behavior of the novel lithium vanadium fluorophosphate phase, LiVPO4F. The abstract for the paper may be found here:

Long term cycling studies on the 4V cathode, lithium vanadium fluorophosphate


May 2010 - New US Patent Issues

A new important US patent entitled Electrode active material and method of making the same has issued. The patent describes the use and preparation of a number of cathode active materials for use in next generation Li-ion batteries.


March 2010 - IMLB-2010

Jerry Barker will be co-authoring two papers to be presented at the up-coming 15th International Meeting on Lithium Batteries 2010 (IMLB-2010) to be held in Montreal, Canada during June and July this year.

More information on the IMLB-2010 conference, including the abstracts to the two papers, may be found here:



March 2010 - KTN Nanomission

Jerry Barker was part of the UK KTN Nanomission to Germany and Switzerland on March 2-5, 2010. The  mission was designed to provide a framework for collaboration between laboratories in the important areas of nano-enabled clean energy.  Jerry Barker was representing Surion Energy Limited - a new company developing next generation Li-ion battery technology. 

More information on Surion Energy may be found here:

Surion Energy Limited


December 2009 - Hybrid-ion Technology

Hybrid-ion cells are a new and exciting concept in energy storage technology. In these cells, a non-lithium containing cathode material is coupled with a suitable lithium-based anode material such as graphite, hard carbon or lithium titanate, Li4/3Ti5/3O4. This simple but novel approach greatly increases the number of commercially useful cathode materials. By comparison with lithium, only a limited number of sodium insertion materials have been properly characterized for use in energy storage devices.

More information may be found here:

Hybrid-ion: A lithium ion cell base on a sodium insertion material

LTO/Na3V2(PO4)2F3: An example of a hybrid-ion cell based on a non-graphitic anode.


December 2009 - Sodium-ion Cells

Sodium-ion batteries represent an important energy storage alternative to conventional lithium-ion technology. Based on initial data these batteries should offer similar electrochemical characteristics to their lithium counterparts. In addition, they may provide some significant performance advantages such as: lower material costs and improved safety performance. These properties will be particularly important in future large format  applications.

Further information may be found here:

A Sodium-ion cell based on the fluorophosphate compound, NaVPO4F

US Patent#6872492


November 2009 - Li2FeS2 News

Recent work on the electrochemical performance of lithium iron sulfide, Li2FeS2, in Li-ion cells has been presented by J. Barker and co-workers at the 216th ECS Meeting, Vienna, Austria in October 2009. The abstract may be found here:

Li2FeS2: A low-cost, high capacity cathode material for lithium-ion batteries


October 2009 - IBM News

IBM has entered the automotive energy storage arena. The company's Battery 500 Project aims to  boost the range for full EV vehicles from less than 100 miles today (using Li-ion technology) to as much as 500 miles.

According to IBM researchers the solution may lie in the development of commercial Lithium-air (Li-air) batteries.

Check out my blog for more information on this news story:



September 2009 - A123 Systems - IPO

In a much-publicised move on September 24, 2009 the  nanophosphate Li-ion battery manufacturer A123 Systems went public with an initial public offering of $13.50/share. The IPO raised the company around $380 million. Within days of trading the stock price had risen to over $25 valuing the company at over $2 Billion.

The stock is listed on the NASDAQ with the stock symbol, AONE.



Jerry Barker has set-up a new Blog site. The aim of this blog will be to provide useful background information in the burgeoning energy storage sector - especially focussing on Li-ion battery technology. The blog will also discuss news regarding other areas of interest - non-lithium battery technologies, phosphate active materials, thin-film photovoltaics, Zn-air systems, electrodeposition, as well as related intellectual property issues. Find the blog here:

Barker's Battery Blog


August 2009 - IMPORTANT NEWS

Valence Technology Inc.

We would like to announce that as of August 1, 2009, Jerry Barker will no longer have any professional association with the advanced Li-ion battery producer, Valence Technology Inc. Jerry would like to wish Valence every success in the future.


August 2009 - LiVPO4F news.

In-situ X-ray Diffraction studies on on the LiVPO4F cathode material by N.I. Basir, C. Masquelier and J. Barker will be presented at the up-coming LiBD-4 meeting in Arcachon, France in September 2009. The link to the abstract for this work may be found here:

In-Situ X-Ray diffraction during Li extraction insertion in the LiVPO4F – VPO4F system


August 2009 - Titanate-based Li-ion cathode materials.

Novel titanate-based phases are currently experiencing significant interest as possible new cathode active materials for next generation Li-ion batteries. Jerry Barker is the named inventor on the US patents covering the use of LiMTiO4 and Li2MTiO4 materials in these battery applications. Links to these patents may be found here:

LiMTiO4 materials (M = V, Cr, Fe, Mn etc.).

Li2MTiO4 materials (M = Fe, Mn, Ni, Co etc.).

The US patent covering the novel synthesis method for some of these materials may be found here:

Titanate Synthesis Method.


March 2009 - Jerry Barker and co-workers have recently published two new papers in the proceedings volume of the IMLB-14 meeting found in the Journal of Power Sources. The abstracts may be found here:

Lithium Metal Phosphates, power and automotive applications.

Synthesis, Characterisation of Iron Tungstate anode materials.


January 2009 - LiVPO4F news. A recent paper by Prof. Jeff Dahn's group published in the journal Electrochemistry Communications  confirms the excellent safety and electrochemical properties of the LiVPO4F Li-ion cathode material.

The abstract for this paper may be found here:

Reactivity of charged LiVPO4F with EC:DEC electrolyte at high temperature as studied by accelerating rate calorimetry.


October 2008 - An important new patent has issued. US Patent 7438992 (Inventors: J. Barker and M.Y. Saidi) describes the application of some new and commercially valuable lithium fluorophosphates that may find use in the next generation of lithium-ion batteries.


October 2008 - Jerry Barker is undertaking collaborative research with Prof. C. Masquelier's group at LRCS, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens, France. This work will focus on an in-situ XRD study of the alkali ion insertion reactions in LiVPO4F and Na3V2(PO4)2F3. More details on this work will follow.


October 2008 - Jerry Barker was co-author of an invited presentation at the Batteries 2008 Conference, Nice, France. More details on this important event can be found here:

Batteries 2008 Conference


June 2008 - Here is a comprehensive review of Lithium-ion Active Materials  recently written by Jerry Barker:

Lithium-ion Active Materials.


May 2008 - Jerry Barker recently presented at The 25th International Battery Seminar and Exhibit, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, March 17-20, 2008. Download a PDF copy of the presentation here:

Phosphates for Li-ion Batteries - Materials, Synthesis and Future Opportunities.


April 2008 - Jerry Barker was an invited speaker at the recent International Conference on Materials and Advanced Technologies (ICMAT-2007). Download a PDF copy of the presentation here:

A Brief Review of Valence Technology's Phosphate Program.


November 2007 - LiVPO4F news. The effect of Al substitution on the insertion properties of the new active material, LiVPO4F have been described in a recent paper by J. Barker and co-workers,  published in J. Power Sources 174, 927, (2007).


October 2007 - Jerry Barker has been invited to contribute a review article to The Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, to be published by Elsevier Science in 2008. The invited article will be entitled: Lithium-ion Rechargeable Batteries: Novel Materials.


August 2007 - Hybrid-ion Battery News. A recent publication (J. Electrochemical Soc. 154, A882, (2007)) by J. Barker and co-workers describes a new Hybrid-ion approach in which non-graphitic phases are used as anode active materials. The novel Li4/3Ti5/3O4 and Na3V2(PO4)2F3 battery chemistry demonstrates performance characteristics comparable to commercial lithium-ion cells.


July 2007 - Jerry Barker is an invited speaker at the International Conference on Materials and Advanced Technologies (ICMAT-2007) 1-6 July, 2007 in Singapore. The presentation is entitled 'A Brief Review of Valence Technology's Phosphate Program'.


March 2007 - A new lithium-ion cell based on Li4/3Ti5/3O4 (Li4Ti5O12) and LiVPO4F is described by J. Barker and co-workers (Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 10, A130, (2007)). This battery may prove useful for commercial applications (e.g. EV/HEV) where rate performance and safety characteristics are at a premium.


March 2007 - A recent publication by J. Barker and co-workers (J. Electrochemical Soc. 154, A307, (2007)) describes how the lithium insertion properties of Li3V2(PO4)3 can be modified by small additions of substitutional Al. This behavior may prove beneficial in optimizing the performance of this important active material in commercial lithium-ion cells.


November 2006 - The promising commercial properties of the LiVPO4F active material - developed by Jerry Barker - have been highlighted in the Royal Society of Chemistry Annual Reports for 2006 - Annu. Rep. Prog. Chem. Sect. A: Inorg. Chem., 2006.


September 2006 - The recall of 6M Sony lithium-ion laptop batteries by Dell and Apple highlights the need for safe alternatives. The only safe, large format lithium-ion batteries commercially available are based on phosphate chemistry.  


September 2006 - A new technical paper entitled The Electrochemical Insertion Properties of the Sodium Vanadium Fluorophosphate, Na3V2(PO4)2F3 by J. Barker and co-workers is published in the journal Solid State Ionics (Vol. 177, 1495, 2006). This novel fluorophosphate active material shows outstanding alkali ion insertion properties which may make it suitable for future commercial application.


August 2006 - A new US patent (#7,087,346) has issued that describes new active materials that will be suitable for application in safe lithium ion batteries. The patent is entitled Alkali/transition Metal Phosphates and related Electrode Active Materials by Jerry Barker and co-workers.


June 2006 - Jerry Barker will be presenting new results at the International Meeting on Lithium Batteries 2006 conference in Biarritz, France. The abstracts are entitled: The Effect of Al and Cr Substitution on the Insertion Properties of LiVPO4F and The Rate Performance of Lithium Vanadium Phosphate. 


June 2006 - A new paper entitled LiVPO4F: A new active material for safe lithium-ion batteries by J. Barker and co-workers is published in the journal Solid-State Ionics. The presented data indicate that the fluorophosphate possesses exemplary electrochemical performance and may well be suitable as a replacement for LiCoO2 in commercial lithium-ion cells.


April 2006 - Important Phosphate Patent Issued.  . ed 'Lithium-based active materials  and preparation thereof', has issued. This patent describes the synthesis and application of novel Mg-doped LiFePO4 olivine materials in lithium-ion batteries. These materials form the basis of the commercially successful Saphion I Technology from Valence Technology Inc.


January 2006 - Major New Battery Breakthrough!  Jerry Barker and co-workers describe the performance characteristics of a new battery system in the journal Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters (Vol 9, A190, (2006)).  The so-called Hybrid Ion Cell uses a sodium ion insertion material in conjunction with a graphite anode and a lithium-based electrolyte. Importantly, highly lithiated graphite is found to be stable in the presence of sodium ions in the electrolyte phase. 


August 2005 - A recent paper by Jerry Barker and co-workers published in the journal Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters (Vol 8, A226, (2005)) suggests that lithium vanadium diphosphate, LiVP2O7 may be a viable cathode material for lithium-ion applications. Previous studies had indicated that the diphosphate was a low rate and low specific capacity active material.


July 2005 - Jerry Barker and co-workers recently presented at the Solid State Ionics conference (SSI-15) in Baden-Baden, Germany. LiVPO4F was introduced as a new active material for safe, large format lithium-ion batteries. 


May 2005 - A recent paper by J. Barker et al. in the journal Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters (Vol 8, A285, (2005)) describes the fabrication and performance of novel symmetrical lithium-ion batteries. 


April 2005 - A series of recent papers by J. Barker and co-workers have described the properties of lithium vanadium fluorophosphate, LiVPO4F as a viable cathode active material for next generation lithium-ion batteries. For example, see the publication by J. Barker and co-workers in J. Electrochemical Soc. 152, A1776, (2005).


July 2004 - Jerry Barker presents important new findings regarding  novel phosphate based lithium-ion batteries at the 12th International Meeting on Lithium Batteries (IMLB-12) in Nara, Japan. This work has now been published in the journal J. Power Sources Vol. 146, 516, (2005).


June 2003 - The lithiated molybdenum oxide phases, LiMoO2 and LixMoO2 are first described as potential active materials for lithium-ion applications (J. Barker et al., Solid State Ionics, 158, 261,(2003) and J. Barker et al. Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 6, A252, (2003). The active materials were all prepared using the carbothermal reduction (CTR) approach.


May 2003 - The Carbothermal Reduction (CTR) approach for commercial scale synthesis of lithiated transition metal phosphates and oxides is further described by J. Barker et al. in J. Electrochemical Soc. 150, A684, (2003).


February 2003 - A novel Carbothermal Reduction (CTR) synthesis method is described by J. Barker and co-workers (J. Barker et al. Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 6, A53, (2003)). The CTR approach allows, for the first time, the cost-effective manufacture of lithium metal phosphates for commercial lithium-ion applications. 


January 2003 - An important  recent paper by Jerry Barker and co-workers (J. Barker et al., Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 6, A1, (2003)) describes the world's first phosphate sodium-ion battery. The cell chemistry is based on a commercial hard carbon anode coupled to a novel fluorophosphate cathode, NaVPO4F. 


June 2002 - The lithium insertion properties of the Li3V2(PO4)3 material have been reported by J. Barker et al. in Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 5, A149, (2002). The work features for the first time the cycling of all three lithium ions in the Nasicon structure - equivalent to a reversible specific capacity of over 190 mAh/g. It is suggested that the LVP compound may find application in commercial lithium ion cells.


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