Some Useful Links
hope you find the information on this website useful. Please feel free to
use the links below to find more information about some of our activities.
╗Silicophosphate Active Materials
╗LiMPO4.OH Active Materials
Graphite Anode Materials (3R Phase)
╗Na3M2(PO4)2F3 Active Materials
╗Li2CuO2 Active Material
Below is a short summary of active
materials that were either invented or co-invented by Jerry Barker:
LiFe1-xMxPO4 Substituted Olivines (M =
Mg, Ca, Zn etc.) US6884544
Li3M2(PO4)3 Nasicons (M = Fe, V, Mn etc.) US5871866
LiMPO4F Fluorophosphates (M = Fe, V, Mn etc.) US 6387568
LiMPO4.OH Hydroxy-phosphates (M = Fe, V, Mn etc.)
Li2MP2O7 Dilithium diphosphates (M = Fe, Mn, Co, Ni etc.)
Li3M(SO4)3 Lithium sulfates (M = Fe, V, Mn etc.)
LiMSO4F Lithium Fluorosulfates (M = Fe, Mn, Co, Ni etc.)
NaMSO4F Sodium Fluorosulfates (M = Fe, Mn, Co, Ni etc.)
Li2MPO4F Lithium Fluorophosphates (M = Fe, Mn, Co, Ni etc.)
Na2MPO4F Sodium Fluorophosphates (M = Fe, Mn, Co, Ni etc.)
Li4M2(SiO4)(PO4)2 Silicophosphates (M = Fe, V, Mn etc.)
Li3M1.5Al0.5(PO4)3 Substituted Nasicons (M = Fe, V, Mn
β-LiVOPO4 Vanadyl Phosphate US6645452
NaMPO4F Sodium Fluorophosphates (M = Fe, V, Mn etc.)
Na3M2(PO4)2F3 Sodium Fluorophosphates (M = Fe, V, Mn etc.)
LiMTiO4, LiMZrO4 Titanates, Zirconates (M = Fe, V, Mn etc.)
Li2MTiO4, Li2MZrO4 Titanates, Zirconates (M = Fe, Mn, Co,
Ni etc.) US6103419
Li2CuO2 Lithium Copper Oxide US5670277
LixMoO2 Lithium Molybdenum Oxides US6908710
LiV2O5 Lithium Vanadium Oxide
Novel Phase A US Pending
Novel Phase B US Pending
Novel Phase C US Pending
Welcome to our homepage - we hope you
find the information useful. Please use the navigation bar above to
access the rest of the site.
In addition, please check out Jerry
Barker's blog site here:
Barker's Battery Blog
Barker Consultants is a privately owned consulting business
based in the UK specializing in electrochemical science and technology.
╗ Novel Battery Materials:
To the left (and also on the
Phosphate and Materials pages on this website) you will find a short summary
of active materials that were either invented or co-invented by Jerry
Jerry Barker has over 25 years of experience
in electrochemistry, energy storage, batteries, solid-state chemistry,
semiconductor electrodeposition, thin-film photovoltaics, electrochromics, instrument control software,
intellectual property, conducting polymers, project management and much
╗ Lithium Battery Expertise:
Jerry Barker is an acknowledged world
expert on lithium metal and lithium-ion battery technologies.
╗ Technical Publications:
Jerry Barker has published over
80 peer-reviewed technical
╗ Intellectual Property:
Jerry Barker is the named inventor on more than
85 issued US
patents and on over 40 pending US patent applications. In addition, Jerry
is the named inventor on numerous international patents and patent
╗ Peer Review:
Jerry Barker is a current peer reviewer for
15 leading international
╗ Thin-film Photovoltaics (PV):
has extensive knowledge and experience in the large area electodeposition
of compound semiconductors for use in Photovoltaic (PV) and other applications.
╗ Extensive Client List:
Jerry Barker has assisted numerous R&D
organizations ranging in size from global multinationals to small
Jerry Barker has run research
and development labs in Europe and in the US. Our present facility in England
includes a state-of-the-art electrochemical testing facility.
╗ Lithium Metal Phosphates:
led the first research group to establish
lithium metal phosphates as viable electroactive materials for lithium-ion
╗ Fluorophosphate Active Materials:
Jerry Barker invented the world's first fluorophosphate
based lithium-ion battery. This battery is currently entering commercial
production. We believe that LiVPO4F may rival lithium cobalt oxide as the
industry's best cathode material choice.
╗ Phosphate Electroactive Materials:
Jerry Barker invented and developed
numerous phosphate electroactive materials for battery applications - e.g.
LiFe(M)PO4, Li3M2(PO4)3, LiMPO4F, NaMPO4F, Li2MPO4F, Na3V2(PO4)2F3, LiVP2O7,
╗ Phosphate Lithium-ion Batteries:
Jerry Barker played a pivotal role in the development
of the world's first commercially available
phosphate based lithium-ion battery. Currently this chemistry is the
industry's only inherently safe lithium-ion system and is finding wide use
in large format applications such as EV/HEV/PHEV.
╗ Hybrid-ion Batteries:
Jerry Barker announced a recent and major breakthrough in lithium-ion battery research whereby a sodium
insertion material is used in conjunction with a graphite anode. This may
lead to an entirely new range of energy storage devices.
╗ Carbothermal Reduction:
Jerry Barker invented and established the Carbothermal
Reduction (CTR) approach for the large scale and cost-effective synthesis of electroactive materials for battery applications.
The proprietary CTR method is now used to make active materials at the
metric tonne per day scale.
╗Electrochemical Voltage Spectroscopy:
developed the Electrochemical
Voltage Spectroscopy (EVS) method into an industry standard analysis tool
for studying ion insertion reactions.
╗ Sodium-ion Batteries:
Jerry Barker invented the world's first
sodium-ion battery based on polyanion active materials.
╗ Nasicon-based Lithium-ion Batteries:
Jerry Barker demonstrated the world's first commercially
available lithium-ion battery based on a Nasicon (Li3V2(PO4)3) cathode
╗Manganese Oxide Lithium-ion Batteries:
Jerry Barker invented and developed a commercially
successful lithium-ion battery based on a surface-modified lithium
manganese oxide (spinel) active material.
╗ Symmetrical Lithium-ion Batteries:
Established the world's first symmetrical
lithium-ion battery - a novel concept where the same active material acts as both
positive and negative electrodes.
This approach is expected to have major positive impact on the safety and
cost of these novel battery systems.
╗ Semiconductor Electrodeposition:
Jerry Barker invented and patented processes for the
large scale electrodeposition of compound semiconductors (with BP Solar).
╗Next Generation Photovoltaic Devices:
Jerry Barker invented processes to allow
scale manufacture of thin film II-VI photovoltaic devices with world record
╗ Diphosphate Lithium-ion Batteries:
Jerry Barker demonstrated
the world's first diphosphate-based lithium-ion battery.
╗Lithium Vanadium Oxide Lithium-ion Batteries:
Demonstrated the world's first lithium-ion
battery based on a low cost, lithiated vanadium oxide cathode chemistry.
╗ Nobel Prize Winners:
has collaborated and published on electronically
conducting polymers with the Nobel Prize winners,
Prof. Alan Heeger and Prof. Hideo Shirakawa.
November 2012 -
Jerry Barker is now working full-time at
Faradion Limited - a UK-based start-up company engaged
in the research and development of next generation (non-lithium) energy storage
Important and exciting news about the
company should follow shortly...
Jerry can be contacted at the company using
the following email address:
November 2012 -
interest on Tavorite-type vanadium fluorophosphates continues to
gain pace. These triclinic structured materials, which were first
described by Jerry Barker and co-workers, are extremely promising
electrode materials for both Li-ion and Na-ion batteries.
this general theme, a recent paper by Park et al (Scientific Reports
2, October 2012) describes a new layer structure lithium/sodium
vanadium fluorophosphate, Li1.1Na0.4VPO4.8F0.7.
November 2011 -
Important News: Faradion Limited
Jerry Barker has recently been appointed CTO
of Faradion Limited. This hi-tech start-up company located in the UK
is engaged in the development of next generation energy storage
More information about Faradion may be
found at the company website:
Faradion Limited Website
November 2011 -
International Battery Materials
Barker has been selected to receive the IBA Technology Award of
2012. The prestigious award is granted based on "contributions made
to identifying new secondary battery cathode materials and related
materials research field, which have been recognized
- New Issued US Patent
An important US patent has recently
Jerry Barker and Yazid Saidi) covering new synthesis routes to
making valuable phosphate-based electrode active materials for lithium-ion
batteries. The full details may
be found here:
Method for making phosphate-based electrode active materials.
- Patent Infringement; Carbothermal Reduction Patent
Valence Technology Inc. has won its Canadian
patent infringement lawsuit (Tuesday, February 17, 2011) regarding
its proprietary carbothermal reduction technology (CTR). The
lawsuit was filed against Phostech Lithium Inc. and the judgment
entitles Valence to an injunction, an election of either an
accounting of profits or damages, reasonable compensation and costs.
The Valence press release for this announcement may be found here:
Valence Technology Victorious in Canadian Patent Infringement
The CTR invention was invented and
developed by Jerry Barker and co-workers as the most economical
process for the manufacturing of lithium metal phosphates for
battery applications. Valence has been using this technology for
several years to make its lithium iron magnesium phosphate material.
- Lithium Metal Diphosphates
article in the J. American Chemical Society entitled
Iron Pyrophosphate as 3.5 V Class Cathode for Lithium Ion Battery
has described the promising electrochemical properties of the
lithium insertion material, Li2FeP2O7.
The Li2FeP2O7 material represents one
example of a class of lithium metal diphosphates materials, Li2MP2O7
(where M = +2 oxidation state transition metal). The use of these
materials in battery applications is covered in the following issued
US Patent (Inventors: Barker and Saidi, filed April 2003):
Oligo Phosphate-based Electrode Active Materials.
- Issued US Patents
Two important US patents (Inventors:
Jerry Barker and co-workers) covering various aspects of lithium-ion
battery technology have recently been issued. The full details may
be found here:
Alkali/transition metal phosphates and related electrode active
Electrodes comprising mixed active particles.
- Fluorosulfate Active Materials
Alkali metal fluorosulfate materials (AMSO4F, A = Li or Na)
are currently receiving significant attention as potentially
valuable new cathode active materials for advanced battery
applications. The use of these materials in energy storage
applications is covered in the following US Patent application (US
2005/0163699- Inventors: Jerry Barker and co-workers):
Fluorosulfate based electrode active materials and methods of making
It should also be noted that earlier US patent applications by the
same inventors also cover these materials in various energy storage
- Pellion Technologies Inc.
Technologies Inc., an MIT spin-out company researching new
magnesium-based energy storage systems has launched its website:
Pellion Technologies Inc.
- Sodium Ion Battery Patent
important and recently issued US patent entitled
Batteries (US#7759008- Inventors: Jerry Barker and
co-workers) describes the use of polyanion cathode materials in
these advanced battery applications. Sodium ion batteries may
out-perform their lithium counterparts in terms of performance,
cost and safety.
- ARPA-E Program
Last month the U.S.
Department of Energy announced it is awarding $106 million in
federal funding through the Advanced Research Projects Agency –
Energy (ARPA-E). Within the Batteries for Electrical Energy Storage
in Transportation (BEEST) sector there were some important awards
for Pellion Technologies Inc. and
ReVolt Technology LLP.
More information on the objectives of BEEST
may be found here:
The ARPA-E BEEST Program
- New LiVPO4F Results
new paper by M.V.Reddy and co-workers confirms the excellent long
term lithium cycling behavior of the novel lithium vanadium
fluorophosphate phase, LiVPO4F. The abstract for the paper may be
Long term cycling studies on the 4V cathode, lithium vanadium
- New US Patent Issues
important US patent entitled
active material and method of making the same has issued.
The patent describes the use and preparation of a number of cathode
active materials for use in next generation Li-ion batteries.
Jerry Barker will be
co-authoring two papers to be presented at the up-coming 15th
International Meeting on Lithium Batteries 2010 (IMLB-2010) to
be held in Montreal, Canada during June and July this year.
More information on the IMLB-2010
conference, including the abstracts to the two papers, may be found here:
- KTN Nanomission
Jerry Barker was
part of the UK
KTN Nanomission to Germany and Switzerland on March 2-5,
2010. The mission was designed to provide a framework for
collaboration between laboratories in the important areas of nano-enabled
clean energy. Jerry Barker was representing Surion Energy
Limited - a new company developing next generation Li-ion battery
More information on Surion Energy may be
Surion Energy Limited
- Hybrid-ion Technology
Hybrid-ion cells are a new and exciting
concept in energy storage technology. In these cells, a non-lithium
containing cathode material is coupled with a suitable lithium-based
anode material such as graphite, hard carbon or lithium titanate,
Li4/3Ti5/3O4. This simple but novel approach greatly increases the
number of commercially useful cathode materials. By comparison with
lithium, only a limited number of sodium insertion materials have
been properly characterized for use in energy storage devices.
More information may be found here:
Hybrid-ion: A lithium
ion cell base on a sodium insertion material
example of a hybrid-ion cell based on a non-graphitic anode.
- Sodium-ion Cells
Sodium-ion batteries represent an important
energy storage alternative to conventional lithium-ion technology.
Based on initial data these batteries should offer similar
electrochemical characteristics to their lithium counterparts. In
addition, they may provide some significant performance advantages
such as: lower material costs and improved safety performance. These
properties will be particularly important in future large format
Further information may be found here:
A Sodium-ion cell
based on the fluorophosphate compound, NaVPO4F
- Li2FeS2 News
Recent work on the
electrochemical performance of lithium iron sulfide, Li2FeS2, in
Li-ion cells has been presented by J. Barker and co-workers at the
216th ECS Meeting, Vienna, Austria in October 2009. The abstract may
be found here:
Li2FeS2: A low-cost, high capacity cathode material for lithium-ion
- IBM News
IBM has entered the automotive energy storage
arena. The company's Battery 500 Project aims to boost the
range for full EV vehicles from less than 100 miles today (using
Li-ion technology) to as much as 500 miles.
According to IBM researchers the solution
may lie in the development of commercial Lithium-air (Li-air)
Check out my blog for more information on
this news story:
- A123 Systems - IPO
much-publicised move on September 24, 2009 the nanophosphate
Li-ion battery manufacturer
A123 Systems went
public with an initial public offering of $13.50/share. The IPO
raised the company around $380 million. Within days of trading the
stock price had risen to over $25 valuing the company at over $2
The stock is listed on the NASDAQ with the
stock symbol, AONE.
NEW BLOG SITE
Barker has set-up a new Blog site.
The aim of this
blog will be to provide useful background information in the
burgeoning energy storage sector - especially focussing on Li-ion
battery technology. The blog will also discuss news regarding other
areas of interest - non-lithium
battery technologies, phosphate active materials, thin-film
photovoltaics, Zn-air systems, electrodeposition, as well as related
intellectual property issues.
Find the blog here:
Barker's Battery Blog
August 2009 - IMPORTANT NEWS
Valence Technology Inc.
like to announce that as of August 1, 2009, Jerry
Barker will no longer have any professional association with the
advanced Li-ion battery producer,
Valence Technology Inc.
Jerry would like to wish Valence every success in the future.
- LiVPO4F news.
In-situ X-ray Diffraction studies
on on the LiVPO4F cathode material
by N.I. Basir, C. Masquelier and J. Barker will be presented at the
up-coming LiBD-4 meeting in Arcachon, France in September 2009. The
link to the abstract for this work may be found here:
In-Situ X-Ray diffraction during Li extraction insertion in the
LiVPO4F – VPO4F system
- Titanate-based Li-ion cathode materials.|
Novel titanate-based phases are currently
experiencing significant interest as possible new cathode active
materials for next generation Li-ion batteries. Jerry Barker is the
named inventor on the US patents covering the use of LiMTiO4 and
Li2MTiO4 materials in these battery applications. Links to these
patents may be found here:
materials (M = V, Cr, Fe, Mn etc.).
materials (M = Fe, Mn, Ni, Co etc.).
The US patent covering the novel synthesis
method for some of these materials may be found here:
- Jerry Barker and co-workers have recently published two new papers
in the proceedings volume of the IMLB-14 meeting found in the
Journal of Power Sources. The abstracts may be found here:|
Phosphates, power and automotive applications.
Synthesis, Characterisation of Iron Tungstate anode materials.
- LiVPO4F news. A recent paper by Prof. Jeff Dahn's group published in the journal
Communications confirms the excellent safety and
electrochemical properties of the LiVPO4F Li-ion cathode material.
The abstract for this paper may be found
Reactivity of charged LiVPO4F with
EC:DEC electrolyte at high temperature as studied by accelerating
- An important new patent has issued.
7438992 (Inventors: J. Barker and M.Y. Saidi) describes the
application of some new and commercially valuable lithium
fluorophosphates that may find use in the next generation
of lithium-ion batteries.
- Jerry Barker is undertaking collaborative research with Prof. C. Masquelier's group at LRCS, Universite de Picardie Jules Verne,
Amiens, France. This work will focus on an in-situ XRD study of the
alkali ion insertion reactions in LiVPO4F and Na3V2(PO4)2F3. More
details on this work will follow.|
- Jerry Barker was co-author of an invited presentation at the
Batteries 2008 Conference, Nice, France. More details on this
important event can be found here:|
- Here is a comprehensive review
of Lithium-ion Active Materials recently written by Jerry
Lithium-ion Active Materials.
- Jerry Barker recently presented at The 25th
International Battery Seminar and Exhibit, Fort Lauderdale, Florida,
March 17-20, 2008. Download a PDF copy of the presentation
for Li-ion Batteries - Materials, Synthesis and Future
- Jerry Barker was an invited
speaker at the recent International Conference on Materials and
Advanced Technologies (ICMAT-2007). Download a PDF copy of the
Review of Valence Technology's Phosphate Program.
- LiVPO4F news. The effect of Al substitution on the insertion
properties of the new active material, LiVPO4F have been described
in a recent paper by J. Barker and co-workers, published in
Power Sources 174, 927, (2007).|
- Jerry Barker has been invited to contribute a review article to
The Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, to be
published by Elsevier Science in 2008. The invited article will be
entitled: Lithium-ion Rechargeable Batteries: Novel Materials.|
||August 2007 - Hybrid-ion Battery News. A
recent publication (J. Electrochemical Soc.
154, A882, (2007)) by J.
Barker and co-workers describes a new Hybrid-ion approach in which non-graphitic
are used as anode active materials. The novel Li4/3Ti5/3O4
and Na3V2(PO4)2F3 battery chemistry demonstrates performance
characteristics comparable to commercial lithium-ion cells.|
2007 - Jerry Barker is an invited
speaker at the
International Conference on Materials and Advanced Technologies
July, 2007 in Singapore. The presentation is entitled 'A Brief
Review of Valence Technology's Phosphate Program'.|
A new lithium-ion cell based on Li4/3Ti5/3O4 (Li4Ti5O12) and LiVPO4F is
described by J. Barker and co-workers (Electrochemical
and Solid-State Letters 10, A130, (2007)). This battery may
prove useful for commercial applications (e.g. EV/HEV) where rate performance and
safety characteristics are at a premium.|
A recent publication by J. Barker and co-workers (J.
Electrochemical Soc. 154, A307, (2007)) describes how the
lithium insertion properties of Li3V2(PO4)3 can be modified by small
additions of substitutional Al. This behavior may prove beneficial in
optimizing the performance of this important active material in commercial
2006 - The promising commercial properties of the LiVPO4F active
material - developed by Jerry Barker - have been highlighted in the
Royal Society of Chemistry Annual Reports for 2006 - Annu.
Rep. Prog. Chem. Sect. A: Inorg. Chem., 2006.
||September 2006 -
of 6M Sony lithium-ion laptop batteries by Dell and Apple highlights
the need for safe alternatives. The only safe, large format
lithium-ion batteries commercially available are based on phosphate
||September 2006 -
A new technical paper entitled The
Electrochemical Insertion Properties of the Sodium Vanadium
by J. Barker and co-workers is published in the
journal Solid State Ionics (Vol. 177, 1495, 2006). This novel fluorophosphate active
material shows outstanding alkali ion insertion properties which may
make it suitable for future commercial application.
||August 2006 -
A new US patent (#7,087,346) has issued that describes new active
materials that will be suitable for application in safe lithium ion
batteries. The patent is entitled Alkali/transition
Metal Phosphates and related Electrode Active Materials by
Jerry Barker and co-workers.
2006 - Jerry Barker will be presenting new results at the
International Meeting on Lithium Batteries 2006 conference in
Biarritz, France. The abstracts are entitled: The
Effect of Al and Cr Substitution on the Insertion Properties of
LiVPO4F and The
Rate Performance of Lithium Vanadium Phosphate.
2006 - A new paper entitled LiVPO4F: A new active material
for safe lithium-ion batteries by J. Barker and co-workers is
published in the journal Solid-State Ionics. The presented
data indicate that the fluorophosphate possesses exemplary
electrochemical performance and may well be suitable as a
replacement for LiCoO2 in commercial lithium-ion cells.
2006 - Important Phosphate Patent Issued. . ed 'Lithium-based active materials and preparation
thereof', has issued. This patent describes the synthesis and
application of novel Mg-doped LiFePO4 olivine materials in
lithium-ion batteries. These materials form the basis of the
commercially successful Saphion I Technology from Valence Technology
2006 - Major New Battery Breakthrough! Jerry Barker and
co-workers describe the performance characteristics of a new battery
system in the journal Electrochemical
and Solid-State Letters (Vol 9, A190, (2006)). The
so-called Hybrid Ion Cell uses a sodium ion insertion
material in conjunction with a graphite anode and a lithium-based
electrolyte. Importantly, highly lithiated graphite is found to be
stable in the presence of sodium ions in the electrolyte
- A recent paper by Jerry Barker and co-workers published in the journal Electrochemical and Solid-State
Letters (Vol 8, A226, (2005))
suggests that lithium vanadium
diphosphate, LiVP2O7 may be a
viable cathode material for lithium-ion applications. Previous
studies had indicated that the diphosphate was a low rate
and low specific capacity active material.
||July 2005 -
Jerry Barker and co-workers . LiVPO4F was introduced as a new active
material for safe, large format lithium-ion batteries.
||May 2005 - A recent paper by J.
Barker et al. in the journal Electrochemical and Solid-State
Letters (Vol 8, A285, (2005)) describes the fabrication and performance of novel s
||April 2005 - A series of recent
papers by J. Barker and co-workers have described the properties of
lithium vanadium fluorophosphate, LiVPO4F. For example, see the publication by J. Barker and
co-workers in J. Electrochemical Soc.
152, A1776, (2005).
2004 - Jerry Barker presents important new findings
regarding novel phosphate based lithium-ion batteries at the 12th
International Meeting on Lithium Batteries (IMLB-12) in Nara, Japan.
This work has now been published in the journal J. Power Sources
Vol. 146, 516, (2005).
||June 2003 -
The lithiated molybdenum oxide phases, LiMoO2 and LixMoO2 are first described
as potential active materials for lithium-ion applications (J.
Barker et al., Solid State Ionics, 158, 261,(2003) and J.
Barker et al. Electrochem.
Solid State Lett. 6, A252, (2003). The active materials
were all prepared using the carbothermal reduction (CTR) approach.
- The Carbothermal Reduction (CTR) approach for commercial scale
synthesis of lithiated transition metal phosphates and oxides is further
described by J. Barker et al. in J. Electrochemical Soc. 150,
2003 - A novel Carbothermal Reduction (CTR) synthesis method is
described by J. Barker and co-workers (J. Barker et al. Electrochem.
Solid State Lett. 6, A53, (2003)). The CTR approach
allows, for the first time, the cost-effective manufacture of
lithium metal phosphates for commercial lithium-ion applications.
2003 - An important recent paper by Jerry Barker and co-workers
(J. Barker et al., Electrochem.
Solid-State Lett. 6, A1, (2003)) describes the world's first
phosphate sodium-ion battery. The cell chemistry is based
on a commercial hard carbon anode coupled to a novel fluorophosphate
June 2002 - The lithium insertion properties of
the Li3V2(PO4)3 material have been reported by J. Barker et al. in
Solid State Lett. 5, A149, (2002). The work features for the
first time the cycling of all three lithium ions in the Nasicon
structure - equivalent to a reversible specific capacity of over 190
mAh/g. It is suggested that the LVP compound may find application in
commercial lithium ion cells.